Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) is a useful system in programming that allows both the coach and the athlete to effectively drive adaptation relevant to the athlete’s goals. The primary driver of adaptation in RPE based programming is proximity to failure whereby optimal strength and hypertrophy gains are made with considerations to internal and external loading, fatigue, and stress management.
Why Do Coaches Use RPE Based Programming?
RPE based programming systems allow the coach and the athlete to identify how the external load (weight on the bar) is affecting the internal load (system’s response to load). Internal load considers the variables outside the training program that will affect an athlete’s performance day to day. How is the athlete’s nutrition? Are they sleeping well? Do they have a big project coming up at work, leading to a high-stress response? Allowing ourselves to consider the internal load will create a more positive coach-athlete relationship while driving adaptive processes with external load.
How do PerforMotion use RPE Based Programming for performance and rehab?
The most consistent improvements are made when the client wants them. RPE-based training allows the client to take ownership of their program, irrespective of training for performance or rehab.
In athletes, systemic fatigue is expressed through compound movements. So how does this work in a rehabilitation context? RPE based programming works with rehab clients where proximity to failure is in the context of isolated failure, pain, or excessive compensation strategies. Rehab is very rarely a linear progression. We need to factor in internal loading the same way as we would for athletes.
Any athlete or rehab client will work well with RPE based programming, provided they are educated about how it works and how their body reacts to load. The system allows clients greater control in what they do with their program based on how they feel on the day, ensuring greater program adherence and long-term health behaviour change.
Cons of RPE Based Programming
As with anything, there are pros and cons to consider before administering an RPE based programming regime. The primary cons with this are the classic overshooter or undershooter.
Do you identify with any of these statements?
“I wanted to see if I could do it.”
“I did less weight last week.”
“I overshot completing 5 reps instead of 10 so I dropped the weight and got out another 5 reps. I had to drop the weight again because I could only do 6 at the new weight.”
Congratulations, you are an over-shooter with a balls-to-the-wall approach. You need to work on pulling yourself back when needed. Proximity to failure drives adaptation. If you’re going to failure or leaving yourself gassed before completing the accessories of your program you are going to consistently push shit uphill in an endless cycle of long lasting fatigue and lack of gains..
On the flip side, do you identify with these statements?
“The weight felt really heavy” (After every rep moved like a warmup)
“I wanted to save myself for the other lifts.”
“I started to feel it working so I thought it was enough.”
Ahhh yes, the undershooter. We will see you more frequently in your novice years where your skill level and understanding of true muscular fatigue are still being developed. You’ll need more of a push from yourself, training partner, or coach to drive the most out of your training.
Now To The Pros of RPE Based Programming
Provided that you are educated on your body and how you perform with different internal loading patterns, the pros of RPE based programing are far reaching.
– Takes internal load consideration; when you have had a rough day at work, it is normal for our training to take a hit.
– Capitalizes on days where you have had sufficient recovery from training; these means you’ve enough good quality sleep, nutrition, fatigue, and stress management.
– Improved autoregulation; an understanding on how your body and training may differ day to day
– Reactive; you can change external loading to match your internal loading.
– Transferable skillset
So you’ve learnt what RPE Based Programming Is About and How We Use RPE Based Programming.…
How Can We Apply The RPE Based Programming Method?
RPE based programming can be used in a variety of settings, be it powerlifting, bodybuilding, or rehab, within macro and micro-cycles. RPE can be used with programming on and off seasons in strength sports.
Remember the key aspects of RPE based programming that make your programming bullet-proof are…
– Proximity to failure is relative to everything in and out of the gym.
– Failure can be derivative of systemic fatigue, isolated fatigue, pain, or compensation strategies.
– Client has more control over their programming. It is their goals they are trying to hit, not the coaches.
– Understanding of how internal loading affects external performance.
At the end of the day it’s ok to hit the same number over and over while you’re learning. It’s the fixation on perfection for performance that will play a role in how you feel about your numbers.
Have you been going to different practitioners trying to find the answers to your sore knee, hip, back, or shoulder? Are you getting enough sleep at night? Are you feeling stressed, managing your nutrition?
Have you blamed a muscle or body part for your patients’ sore knee, back, or shoulder?
We as practitioners need to stop trying to find an easy solution to pain. This is something all of us are guilty of, at one point or another. A patient is presented to us with a problem that has been affecting them for weeks, months, years – it’s only natural that we want to make them feel better as quickly as possible. As a consequence, promises of quick fixes have led many people to bounce between practitioners trying to find that one solution to their pain.
On the flip side, patients need to take responsibility for their own education and understanding of their pain.
At uni, we are taught that the body is made up of levers. There are uses for this model but when it comes to chronic pain, structuralism is not always the answer.
There may be movements that feel like they cause an immediate reaction (back pain when bending over to pick up your keys or tying your shoes). However, contrary to social media/family/friends/next door neighbours, the answer is not going to be a single area that “didn’t activate” or “is overused”. This has led many to believe if you’re hurting in this spot, you need to work on that area to make it feel better. This unfortunately, has led to many of the problems practitioners and patients alike face when addressing pain.
If pain is not structural, where does it come from?
This is difficult to answer as there really isn’t an answer.
Introducing… The Biopsychosocial Model!
The biopsychosocial model asks us to consider the biological as well as the psychological and social aspects of your, or your patient’s, lifestyle.
We can consider biological factors like inflammatory markers, nociceptor sensitivity, pathoanatomy, or neuropathology, however, this does not create a holistic image when we look at pain. Following a traumatic incident, there is upregulation of nociceptors and inflammatory markers near the trauma site that acts as a protective alert system to tissue damage in the area. The body is meant to heal itself and these inflammatory markers help to do that. This is what makes us more sensitive to movement. It is important that biological factors are taken into consideration when treating patients, however markers such as tissue damage are not the only explanation for what makes patients perceive pain.
This is where the biopsychosocial model is utilised to allow us to better explain pain. The BPS model incorporates contributing factors that help explain why an individual may feel varying degrees of sensitivity day to day. @hannahmoves has an incredibly effective tool for explaining how we utilize the BPS model with our patients as seen below
Poor nutrition, stress, anxiety, fear avoidance, poor sleep, training volume and past experiences will all contribute to how your patients feel day to day. It’s important that we address all of these factors when it comes to communicating with our patients, not just focusing on a single issue. Explaining pain science and incorporating motivational interviewing techniques with our patients is how we ensure long term results.
How do we relate this to a patient experience?
Take for example this scenario; a patient books in for a consultation with a history of non-specific lower back pain. They are a young professional used to training in the gym 4-5 days per week with preference to HIIT-style group classes. They have seen doctors for scans, chiropractors, physios, and osteopaths, and have yet to come across a consistent answer that will fix their problem.
The difficulty with this scenario we see all too often is that there is no real answer and trying to educate someone that after several weeks, months, or years of bouncing between professionals, is a challenging task. Scan reports can be useful in some instances for diagnosis but they can not explain a sensitivity experience. The holistic view of understanding pain science helps us understand our patients.
Being able to better understand the multi-faceted nature of pain, how and why it occurs, will help every allied health professional (and their patients) become better practitioners.
How do we become better at what we do?
Continue your educational journey and listen to your patients. There is always going to be something to learn but finding the right resources can be tough. Education is not just for practitioners but for anyone experiencing pain.
I met Tom about 8 months ago on referral from my coach to sort out issues I was having with my knee post-surgery squatting. I tried really hard not to make this solely about squatting but couldn’t help myself, we talk about movement dysfunction what that looks like for strength athletes and what to be aware of when it comes to lifting. Tom has done wonders for me and many others and his approach to training is amazing. So hopefully you enjoy his wisdom while drowning out my rambling nonsense.
We’ve always been pretty passionate about educating the health and fitness community about movement and exercise, and to help us do that we’ve invested in the development of a great new online learning platform.
On this new platform, we’ll be adding new courses, seminar recordings, downloadable resources and other valuable educational tools to help our clients and friends move and live well.
To kick start Online Learning, we’ve turned one of our popular video series, Training Fundamentals, into an online course. This course is vital knowledge for current clients, coaches, and barbell enthusiasts who want to learn more about creating stability under a barbell and movement in general.
Training Fundamentals covers such topics as:
posture bias and performance
tempo and proprioception, and;
stability drills for upper and lower body
To access our new online learning platform and enrol in Training Fundamentals, click here.